It has always been difficult to delimit the boundaries between the literary manifestation called magic realism and its collateral marvelous realism and fantasy literature. Before you perform any lucubracion about these terms, becomes necessary a previous conceptualization about realism. To begin, we will say that critics described as realism, an essay on society, made from an artistic discourse. Such a situation makes say that it comes with Balzac and the novels of the 19th, in opposition to the fraught, romantic vision of dreams, fantasies, ideal subjects. Before this last, realism adopts a more humane tone. Puts us in contact with normal beings. In synthesis, is a response to the new bourgeois society emerging, a little practice and materialistic, in the broad sense of the term. Hence, Balzac called his proposal, the human comedy.
She was an examination of the French society of his time, including its abhorrent aspects. To be analyzed the reality of this way, come to the naturalism of Zola. Such an evolution is going to be critical, in the 20th century, with the Soviet Revolution and the emergence of socialist realism, because he stopped being painting of reality, to transform into subjectivity, where the art played a secondary role. For its part, in Latin America, realism already balzaquian already zolano was presented under forms of Criollo novel, in some parts, and indigenista novel, in others. In both sets reflected the needs of large human groups marginalized, such as the Aboriginal and the non-indigenous rural communities.
Such needs, sometimes make discarnate complaints, as it happens in Huasipungo, from Jorge Icaza or all the bloods, Jose Maria Arguedas. Others become descriptions from the viewpoint of the ruling, as in the thematic sonada de opposition his classes. And this was, because European romantic novel to what Paul and Virginia, of Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, where the romantic Idyll It was the drive shaft of the fictional action, it was faithfully continued in our, parcels in works as La cautiva by Esteban Echeverria and Maria, Jorge Isaacs. Similarly, by Venezuelan Manuel Vicente Romero Garcia, with its Peony, but this already with anti-establishment overtones.