(Adam Schaff) Dhiogo Jose Caetano Graduating of the UEG – State University of Gois Word-Key: Rebellion, Totality, History, Positivismos, Human being, Croce, Science, Contempornea and Espiritualidade. We can perceive from the analysis of the text Adam Schaff that occurs a process of reformularization of the basic principles of the traditional school; which opposes the previous teses. The divergences appear between the historians at the moment that they pass to interpret the facts being clearly that the study of the facts historical human being goes beyond the limits of the understanding; formulating the contrapositions, affirming that in the historical knowledge, the citizen and the object they constitute a organic totality, acting one on the other; it fits to the historian, the function to interpret the historical events, observing that in history it does not exist laws and rules. The antipositivistas disclose to the distinction between events and the historical facts, affirming that the historian has the paper to work and to understand, therefore cognitiva relation never is passive contemplativa, but active because of the citizen that knows; detaching always the historical reality with total history, working not only the conditional social part for the process of formation of a organic and vice totality and it turns. Schaff considers Hegel a precursor of the presentismo, why exactly its considered ideas being opposing, backwards workmanships that they deserve to be detached, as for example, in the form where the historians, present the ideas on the historical knowledge. Such idea conditions in them to understand ' ' fielmente' ' history but, in a direction of ambiguity leaving of to be passive while thought, trying always to observe the diversity of the reflection of the facts historical, not only having the paper to rewrite such occurrences, submitting themselves it a thought that observes, space between lineses the deformities and the consequences of a purely receptive particularitity.