New Literacy Studies

The letramento is intrinsically on to the way as the reading and the writing is understood and practised in determined social context. The master Pablo Freire was pioneering in the revolutionary idea of letramento, although not to use this term, when affirming that to if becoming alfabetizado, the citizen would have a way to take conscience of its reality and to transform it. In the reality, the social development of the writing occurred in function of some historical landmarks of that time, such as: ' ' emergency of the State as unit politics; the formation of national identities not necessarily based in ethnic or cultural alliances; the socioeconmicas changes in the great masses that if incorporated the forms of industrial works; the emergency of the education formal' ' (KLEIMAN, 1995: 16). All these historical and social landmarks had made with that the writing gained importance more each sped up time in the society. From the decade of 80 of the passed century, they appear, in consequncia of some works related to the writing, the New calls Studies of the Letramento or New Literacy Studies, which consider the independent model and the ideological model of letramento (STREET, 1984). The independent model is based on the understanding of that ' ' the letramento occurs by means of the language without context, of the independent speech and the thought analtico' ' (STREET, 1995, P. 154).

In this perspective, the letramento is a neutral tool that can be applied of homogeneous form, with equally homogeneous results in all the social and cultural contexts. It presents, still, the great verbal verge/written, being that, in the societies where the written letramento is not present, the fact is seen as great ' ' lacuna' ' to be filled by occidental methods that would take to the progress politician, economic and personal. To acquire the letramento would lead to the acquisition of logic, critical reasoning and scientific perspectives, as much in the social level as personal.

International Literacy Day: Enable Formation!

International Literacy Day on September 8: youth a world secures the teaching in more than a dozen schools in Haiti. World’s 796 million adults can not read or write, approximately 68 million children can attend any school. The situation in Haiti is particularly dramatic. Almost 50 percent of adults are illiterate. Even before the earthquake in January 2010, the country counted one of the world’s poorest countries, where people had little access to education. “The State funded only about 10 per cent of the educational institutions’, reported Reinhard a world business leader of youth raucously, and retold: especially children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds have no opportunity to go to school.” The charity youth a world supported the reconstruction of educational institutions in Haiti and has established a salary Fund for educational personnel. Education an important building block for the reconstruction of how important an education is, illustrates the youth a world project partner SR.

rose Monique Jolicoeur FMA: Education is a key to the development of Haiti. It is important to educate a generation of young people who are active for your country and actively participate in reconstruction and the future of the country.” The Salesians of Don Bosco and the Don Bosco a world allow sisters, the project partners from youth to learn children and young people from poorest conditions read and write. The situation after the earthquake, was and is still very difficult. “Everything was destroyed and many children were severely traumatized,” reports father Zucchi SDB and explains: the school has brought back back a little normalcy and stability in their lives these children. ” Just a few weeks after the earthquake, children in makeshift tents and wood school could attend classes. Today, a year and a half after the quake, a part of the children can go back to solid buildings to the school.

In one of the largest slums in Latin America, in Cite Soleil, one was a world already by youth funded school be completed. The large two-storey building is surrounded by a high wall, to allow a safe school the children and young people. The reconstruction of other Don Bosco Educational Centre is already in planning. Salary fund secures school operation in the long run to secure the education youth has established a world a wages Fund for educational personnel. The staff will benefit nurses from more than a dozen schools in the Salesians of Don Bosco Don Boscos. Teachers earn about 150 euros per month, Hauptschule and BerufsschullehrerInnen around 450 euros. Overall, the Fund should be with filled 100.000,-euro are. Can be hired more than 50 teachers in the long term and secured the education of children. Youth a world youth a world is an international charity, was established in 1997 as an association. The purpose of the independent non-governmental organization located in international youth aid and sustainable development cooperation. Under the guiding principle, education overcomes Poverty’ Youth supports a world schools, street children’s programs and educational centers in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe. Project partners are doing the Salesians of Don Bosco and the Don Bosco sisters who have many years of experience and expertise on-site.

Successful Literacy

Of the art, to select the right book since the first Pisa study results were published in Germany in the year 2000, it is clear: schools and parents have a huge problem with children to make experienced and so good readers. The German students fared at the time compared poorly. Often, foreign texts could be read even by young people; the reading comprehension proved to be as flawed of all ages. Meanwhile, newer reading competence tests show that there is in this country a measurable progress. However, most parents and teachers always or ever again are faced with the serious problem that kids just don’t like to read that they unwilling to handle texts and books. The age-old saying “Reading to learn just by reading” is still without trade-offs. Book vs.

monitor books have in recent years more and more competition: through screens. What is happening on the screen, is a convenient and tempting way into the realm of fantasy for the small audience. That children Despite the seductive images on the monitors feel read not as a burden, but that manages to wake up looking for the book, is the only promising way to book fans, to make, to experienced as well as secure readers and to people who actually understand, what they read. Parents of past generations had it in this more easily than the present fathers and mothers: 20 years ago, the hours of children’s programmes on the television were limited and the book as a media guide to the land of imagination, practically no alternative. It has now fundamentally changed. Therefore, it is of particular importance that there is not unpleasant encounters between children and books. Gently ask well promote who faced children with texts, which they have not grown, may not be surprised, if the offspring respond soon irritated to printed. Of course, children learn only, if they are confronted with new, but if it’s too much, they block.

Parliamentary Committee

Convey the fun of reading as a social task today a public consultation on the subject of literacy was held in Berlin. Experts from associations and industry participated in this inventory. The Parliamentary Committee on education, research and technology assessment had invited. The expert meeting is to prepare a National Pact for literacy. Politicians and experts again stressed the magnitude of the problem: 7.5 million people in Germany are functionally illiterate. This means: you can not adequately read and write to master their everyday life. 7.5 million people, this is no small fringe group, but a significant part of our society. “Promotion of reading + reading motivation reading ability = this appalling state of affairs can be improved with relatively limited means!” Ralf Beekveldt is convinced.

He is Managing Director of the fun on the reading Publisher, which publishes the reading materials for young people and adults in simple language. Beekveldts credo: we must promote the reading pleasure, just for those who can not read. Then something may change in Germany really.” Studies show a clear connection between the joy of reading and reading skills: who likes to read, reads more frequently and how this by itself better. Motivate to read books and newspapers in simple language so the Publisher, who is also international, publishes easily readable books and a newspaper specifically for the functionally illiterate. We take seriously our readers”so Beekveldt.

We make people who read poorly, an offer on their own level. With books, which are exciting, fun and interesting.” “In basic education, especially the paper has clear & clear ‘ success. In current issues of society, politics and culture are taken up and in simple language. The short text improve the reading comprehension and promote independent language learning. And so not only better to learn reading, but also his self-confidence increases. Reading is a important building block for social integration and professional opportunities. Literacy needs social and political backing from its international work of entrepreneurs know that only social commitment and political support can make a real change. Only people with reading difficulties can read books that really interest them and which are written in simple language, we will win the fight against functional illiteracy. But we need the help of the policy. This is why books and newspapers in simple language must be urgently component of the national strategy for literacy and basic education.” Fun on the reading Publisher the name is program. “” Under the motto read for all “fun on the reading Publisher books and the newspaper published clear & clear” in simple language with a clear, appealing design. Target group of the reading materials are young people and adults who have no adequate reading skills and for the Reading is not taken for granted. Notes for editors, not for publication: more information about the publishing house under.

Russia Market

To better understand the nature of imperfect competition is necessary to consider classification of market structures. As evidence, determine the shape of the market structure, consider the following: number of member firms in the industry, the nature of production, barriers to entry when entering into industry, the degree of control over price. It should be noted that in reality there is only perfect competition or just a pure monopoly. In practice, one can observe a large variety of different elements of market structure, presented in Table 2. Monopoly – a large company, a corporation combining several companies and are achieved by this definition (monopoly) position in the market of individual product or group of products.

In fact, almost impossible to find a situation would have acted when only one producer of goods that have no substitutes. And so in the use of this term is always there is a certain amount of reserve. In our country, the law firm may be considered dominant in the market of the product, if its share exceeds 50%-ing the amount established by the antimonopoly authority. The purpose of creation Monopoly – the most possible revenue by controlling production and sales of goods. One method of achieving this goal is the establishment of monopoly prices.

Such prices are consequence of an agreement between the monopoly, dominating the market of the product, and installed based on the calculation of obtaining the greatest possible profits from the sale of goods. One should distinguish between two kinds of monopoly prices: 1) high monopoly prices (prices charged for goods they sell), 2) monopoly low prices (the prices are set by a monopoly on buying their products). Monopoly leads to concentration of production, allocation few large producers who agree among themselves, forming a certain period of time the alliance – the union. On short-term fluctuations in demand monopoly prefer not to answer the price change, and maneuvering capacity utilization. To achieve its goals monopoly widely use the following methods of fighting: 1. The economic boycott – full or partial waiver of economic ties with outsiders (businesses, non-monopoly). Monopolies offer dependent on their customers not to buy goods of other firms, as they allegedly inferior quality. 2. Dumping – The intentional sale of goods on the "bargain" prices in order to ruin a competitor. 3. Restricting the sale of goods independent firms. 4. Maneuvering prices – monopoly raises prices on products marketed to small owners, and simultaneously applies a secret discounts and concessions in this regard for large buyers. 5. The use of financial tools to combat competitors. Identify different types of monopolies, bearing in mind the following criteria: 1. Based on the coverage of the economy: – pure monopoly (the seller has complete control over the market) – a limited monopoly (seller has partial control over the market) – an absolute monopoly (production and sale of goods concentrated in the hands of the state). 2. Depending on the nature and causes: – natural (businesses and organizations that have at their disposal rare and freely reproducible elements of production: Rare metals, fertile land, oil, gas, etc.) – a monopoly that occur during a specific agreement rival producers (cartels, syndicates, trusts, corporations, conglomerates). In our country, before restructuring of the Railway Ministry were the big monopolies: rao Gazprom. rao ues of Russia ". Railway Ministry.

Jana Kobeleva

Raffle – is not only fun idea, but the real goods. There are professionals who are ready to invent, sell and, most importantly, they are customers. And most of them are solid people with a certain weight society: the organization of the draw – a rather expensive exercise. Interestingly, in Moscow and St. Petersburg have different approaches to the organization of this kind of business. Primarily affects the difference in the economic climate.

If in Moscow event-agency can afford to deal exclusively with drawings, then in St. Petersburg, they were simply not enough for survival. And against the background of the organization, say, corporate events, which are usually also involved in similar company sweepstakes – a drop in the sea. According to Jana Kobeleva, director of the studio "Events, jokes, greetings, on average, willing to play his neighbor appears twice a month. In this business, you can talk about regular customers who "lead" for their friends and relatives.

Most customers have no idea how they would play each other. Therefore, to answer the question, how much does it – who knows what – will cost almost impossible. Moscow agency draws and surprises "Syureal" for suggesting ideas immediately takes the customer from $ 150 This amount is then enters the general budget of the draw, but it is as if certain guarantee the seriousness of the client in such a "frivolous" case. In St.Petersburg "PDP" such prepayment is not required to provide clients with an economy the scheme and detailed estimates of future action.

Business Cards

What immediately comes to mind? Explore different ways of making business cards, hand tamp "and offer this service on its City site office. Next I see the idea of "Making cd business cards and just combining several of the above ideas there is the following. Making the presentation disk for businesses and organizations in your city, a kind of interactive business cards. Take a photo of the goods or some manufactures one of the firms are adding the appropriate text (mission, benefits, services, products, contacts), make out a disc, packaging and forth. You can make a free version and go to the competitors of this firm and to offer, explaining that their competitors are using here are ways to advertise, and quite successfully. Honestly, can continue indefinitely. With the same success can be arranged at a site free classifieds for individuals (based on the idea of "Pay-board") and own virtual office, where we offer our services, produce CDs, business cards, sell affiliate products and ad space, take orders, execute them, and earn.

By the way be sure to add on this site is free rubrics: books, practical advice, just interesting information for the leisure of your visitors. Above I asked you to imagine the idea as a mere possibility, but now after we considered an example, it becomes clear that the idea is to move, it's an endless world with no means strict laws, which, incidentally, may from time to time break. And this world should try to discern and begin to build it. Slowly brick for brick, not while seeking to ideality.

Debt Collection

The procedure itself is debt collection is often a long, laborious and difficult, cause blurred the facts in such a way that is to entrust the provision of the collection procedure and experienced competent lawyers and jurists, and not arbitrarily run business. Therefore, we suggest that in these situations to conclude with law firms, lawyers' offices and offices of the agreement representing the interests of the recovery debt. Before recoverer apply to the court, it is necessary to deal with the cause of debt. Debt can be formed on the basis of the agreement, the legal relationship associated with defaults on Contracts associated with maintenance, salaries and other areas of law. The statement of claim, to sue, it should be noted: – The name of the court where the claim is filed – who the plaintiff, the location of the plaintiff – who is the defendant, the location of the defendant – the reasons for which the plaintiff has put its claims and arguments put forward by proving the reality of the claims – a claim the plaintiff's own – the cost of the suit – a list of documents attached to the claim – Contact Information plaintiff – the plaintiff's signature and the document certifying the entitlement of the claimant.

Claim must be submitted to the court at the location of the defendant. The stages of debt collection issue of debt collection to date, taking into account global financial crisis, remains one of the most common. From dishonest employers, financial partners, has recently suffered an increasing number of businesses and individuals.

Government Policy

It was a year since Barack Obama became president of the United States of America. According to public opinion surveys conducted in the past month about their management, the level of acceptance of his government is fifty percent, a figure far from the seventy percent that had a year ago at the time of taking office. The motto “if we can” to be transformed into the powerful engine of the election campaign in which his great opponent defeated the now Secretary of State Hillary Clinton seems to be stuck. A speech that “caught” not only American citizenship but world public opinion that held the hope of great change if Barack Obama won the elections. On the debit side with the American people Obama has not yet been able to overcome the enormous economic crisis being experienced by United States and as a direct consequence unemployment climbs ten percent. Perhaps there undoubtedly find the root of this erosion is anticipated that engulfed the first black president in U.S. history. In the area of foreign policy discourse is a bit “fuzzy.” Latin America as a whole is still waiting for more clarity in the relations of the United States.

Although it appears that exceptions to that country such as Mexico, Brazil, Colombia and Chile, other nations seem to be a priority in its foreign policy. The quick U.S. response to the humanitarian crisis in a few days ago the Republic of Haiti, think positive, although international voices have been raised against him.


It takes a governess. How to select among the many contenders for the governess child? How to avoid mistakes when interviewing a candidate for the post of governess and find the very – the best Mary Poppins for her child? At that attention must be paid at the interview a candidate for the nanny or governess, to discuss in advance what points? For some features of selected candidates for governesses? And what features should be have a good governess? In the survey governesses for further recommendations in their family, we start from a few basic criteria. Governess should have special education – special secondary teacher or senior teacher. It all depends on the age of the child and the requirements for the parents to the employee. Sometimes you just need to stay with the baby, feed him, ie, pouhazhivat, it seemed – would, without any training Occupation.

But with any form of communication learning and child-rearing is a constant. Therefore, the overriding quality that must have a governess – a literate speech. Of course, the selection of candidates for governess to pay attention to their personal qualities. Let us just at a psychological portrait of a governess. The face of the governess includes certain appearance and behavior, for example, a positive outlook on life.

And, of course, required qualities that are directly relevant to a contact with a child – empathy, the ability to feel the child and his mood, openness and creativity of thought. Of how creative personality is a governess, her success depends in contact with the child. Such a governess come out of any situation with a positive, it will always be interesting for the child. For the governess is very important and high self-control and special sense of responsibility. Main motivation, the foundation of the image governesses and nannies – this is unconditional love to the kids, a full understanding of the child. Not because he's nice and pretty, but because he – the child.