Brazilian Black Movement

The interest for the thematic gift if gave from the readings and releituras carried through throughout discipline History and historiografia of the Black City in Brazil, given for professor Dr. Luciano Mendona (when I participated only as studious listener and of the subject in the PPGH-UFCG) where I had the chance of being presented other researchers of black history, the example of Petrnio Domingues. E, also, for identifying to me with the research of the same? namely, Black Movement? it is that the choice appeared of the text? among others used ones in the curricular component. Another contributing factor for the choice was the proximity with the contextualizao and subject that for the moment I consider myself to search: the tessituras of black history from the black movement, in infanto-youthful literatures, understood here as cite Inaldete Pine of Andrade (2005) ‘ ‘ the literature made for adult people for children and young. Apprehending literature as an art that populates the imagination, and therefore, it has its space in the formation of the plastic mind of the being that it has acesso’ ‘ (ANDRADE, 2005:118); thus the contributions and concretudes that these had not only brought for the black, but for the history of our mixing country, multicultural, multiracial, multi-ethnic, are configured in an excellent lode of research. To argue the construction and positioning of the Black Movement (and its importance for the construction of a history of the black) for the history of Brazil or the enslaved black Brazilian is something that Petrnio Domingues makes with maestria, in its text Brazilian Black Movement: some historical notes, published in the magazine Time, in the year of 2007, where it has the didactic division of the text at four great moments, helping visualizing better as if accomplished the participation of this population in the escravizao and its release, in the republic…

Assistance Technique

INTRODUCTION the APROBACA is a destined association to help the agriculturists, in the field of agricultural sciences, and in the development of the communities in a general context. Having its headquarters located in the small farm Hand saw of the Oxen, in 4 District of the city of Caruaru. The APROBACA has the support of the Institute of agronmica Research of Pernambuco (IPA), the Company of Assistance Technique of Agricultural Expansion of Pernambuco (EMATER? FOOT), and of the secretariat of agricultural development of the city of Caruaru, beyond all the partners of the association. But, the APROBACA not to be only worried about the interests of its partners, it searchs through the support of ' ' parceiros' ' cited the top the development of all the community. Although its name: Association of the Producers of Batatinhas de Caruaru, today the APROBACA also searchs benefits for all the cultures and creations that are produced in the community. Official site: Boy Scouts of America. But, better to understand the history of the APROBACA, will come back to the year of 1952, to reflect better on the introduction of the culture of batatinha in Caruaru.

INTRODUCTION OF the CULTURE OF the BATATINHA IN CARUARU Has culture of batatinha was introduced in the city of caruaru in 1952, says that this happened by chance, the agriculturist of the small farm marimbondo, Joaquin Antonio, taking a walk for Hope in the Paraba, acquired a small amount of potato seed, and decided to plant it in its property to make an experience, seeing that the farming if held well in that region in the following year, Joaquin Antonio was again to the Hope and acquired more potato seed and again he planted in its property. the years if had passed and its Joaquin continued planting batatinha. With the success of its experience in 1980, 15 agriculturists of the city of Caruaru if had interested for the culture, where it behaved very well in the planted areas, mainly in 4 District of caruaru.

Small Farmers

The first one as extrativa activity, and as, being cultivated for the small farmers. It is then that it appears babau in our economic history, when of world to war i, and allows a first reverse speed-balance in the state finances that came if feeding precariously of loans, and to offer, our commerce, with the exportations of these almonds oleaginosa, in challenge relief that creates a recovery climate whose process of development, is taken offense at the lack of capitals. Agriculture was the activity that congregated men and women, consisting in the main source of the life and of work in the years that if followed in the region. For even more analysis, hear from BSA. The rice will be the responsible one to a large extent for the occupation of extensive free lands, therefore to the measure that goes occurring the deforestation stops plantation, appears small agricultural accumulations that go if developing, and is involved in molds capitalist of stratification, and forming in this manner small great nuclei of povoamentos, that resulted in the sprouting of new cities in level of state and the region of the Valley of the Pindar. The small producer goes leaving of being independent and goes to be the last one placed in a pyramid that involves plantation and occurs for ' ' auxlio' ' of the harvest, being pledged in the hand of traders.

In exchange for the purchases (kerosene, sugar, tools, remedies and possible loans in money). Kidney Foundation can provide more clarity in the matter. The consequence of this relation is the dependence of the small producer that is expropriated, arriving to lose its property for the great large estate owners. With the decline of the sugar production in the Valley of the Pindar and consequently of the devices, it was formed in transcorrer of the years that if had followed, new forms of development in the related region, quoted for agriculture, cattle and commercial. Added projects of the state and federal government and not of isolated form.

In France

1777? He dies, in Portugal, D. Jose I and assumes D. Maria I. 93,1777 – With the death of D. Jose I, the Marquis of Pigeon house is dismissed of the first-minister position of Portugal.

94.1789? In Minas Gerais the Mining Inconfidncia is orquestrada, but the Colonel Joaquin Silvrio Dos Reis who had much money to the Real Farm denounces and Tiradentes is imprisoned in Rio De Janeiro, in 10 of May of 1789. 95.14/07/1789? In France, the tired people of being oppressed by the tyranny of the noblemen if revolt and takes the arrest of the Bastilha. 96.21/04/1792? After three years of inquiries, Tiradentes is hanged, esquartejado its head placed in a high pole in Rich Village, to serve of example other rebels. 97.12/10/1798? Peter de Alcntara is born in Lisbon Francisco Antnio Joo Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquin Jose Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragana and Bourbon, future D. Peter I, Emperor of Brazil. 98.1799? D. Maria I weakens of mental facultieses and d. Joo VI assumes the Portuguese Crown. If this has piqued your curiosity, check out Boy Scouts of America.

99.1808? After the taking of the Bastilha, in France, Napoleo Bonaparte tries to dominate the world. Portugal was imprisoned to England for the treated one to Methwen, if it refuses in supporting it and the Portuguese Real Family is obliged to run away for Brazil. 100.20/03/1816 – Dies in Rio De Janeiro queen D. Maria I. 101.1820? Defeated Napoleo for the English and fearing to lose the throne, D. Joo VI comes back toward Portugal and leaves son D. Peter in Brazil. 102.26/04/1821? The real family returns Portugal, leaving D. Peter as Prince Regent of Brazil. 103.09/01/1822? The Portuguese Cuts pressure D. Peter to return, for Portugal, being suspended the payment of its incomes, and it the celebrity creates ‘ ‘ Day of the Fico’ ‘. 104.07/09/1822? 16h30min, D. Peter of the o shout of ‘ ‘ Independncia or Morte’ ‘ , to the edge of the Ipiranga stream, in So Paulo, and it separates Brazil of Portugal, 30 years after the hanging of Tiradentes. 105.02/12/1825? It is born in Fifth of the Boa Vista, Peter de Alcntara Joo Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocdio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga, future Emperor of Brazil. 106.10/03/1826 – D dies. Joo VI, king of Portugal, in Lisbon. 107.24/09/1834 – It dies in Queluz, D. Peter, I of Brazil and IV of Portugal, in the same room and the same bed where it is born 35 years before, in 12 of October of 1798. 108.05/12/1891 – It dies in Paris, D. Peter de Alcntara Joo Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocdio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga (Peter II of Brazil), been born in Rio De Janeiro in 02/12/1825. 109.17/11/1903? Brazil and Bolivia sign the Treat one to Petrpolis, to the Street Westphalia, n. 05, in Rio De Janeiro, in which Brazil it is of ownership of the territory of the Acre and if it compromises to construct to the Railroad Mamor Wood for the draining of the rubber produced for Bolivia. 110.12/04/1904? The Brazilian Congress approves the Treat one to Petrpolis.

Brazilian City

It ploughs F Saint is a Sanctuary that was raised in homage to the Ibiapina Priest, and it he is situated well in the verge with Solnea, where this religious one passed the last years of its life. The Sanctuary counts on a chapel, house of the miracles, small museum with instruments used for the sisters in houses of charity created by the priest, pictures, domestic utensils of the time, currencies, etc, house of the missionaries and marry where religious one liveed that. The technological empecilhos politicians, delays and economic failures detached by the historian Acio Villar de Aquino hindered the Paraba to enter the scene of Brazilian industrialization in century XIX. It can, to glimpse, therefore, that the industrial sector was sufficiently insufficient and insignificant for the economy of the State, it little presented more than two hundred establishments, that majoriamente was micron-workshops or units manufacter of half-artisan character, using of five the nineteen workers on average for each unit. During this period some segments of the industrial sector for the number of establishments had been distinguished, example of the five leather plants, the five of fabrics, beyond the eight industries of improvement of cotton with great prominence for textile production. It is in this context, that the industry of Tibiry, located in the city of Rita Saint, whose foundation was given in the years of 1891 of century XIX.

This city functioned with three hundred and eighty and sewing presses and a picture of six hundred and fifty workers. No longer city of Mamanguape the Textile Plant of River Tinto, established in the year of 1924, pertaining one to the family Lundgren de Pernambuco, was of great transport, equipped with seven hundred and sixty sewing presses and thirteen a thousand spindles. In consequence of this, the lesser plants if located in other cities, taking, for example, Campina Great Sand, that used, on average, fifty laborers for establishment.

Brazilian Movement

Caetano that iniciono liked it very name, finished for if interesting for the Helium workmanship and, porcerta pressure of the other friends and lacks of a name better, it baptized music as name of Tropiclia; that it would come to imply in the proper name of the movement. Beyond Caetano and Gil, the group of the tropicalistas ones was formed for Tone Z, singer and bahian composer whom So Paulo goes to enter into an alliance it the others msicosdo movement. The mutants, So Paulo band quemisturava elements of the rock and roll with thematic Brazilian and eraformada by Rita Lee, Sergio Days and Arnaldo Baptista. The GAL singers Coast eNara Lion and the letristas Jose Carlos Capinam and Torquato Grandson, thickened otime, that she still had Rogrio Duarte, plastic artist, poet and composer. Keep up on the field with thought-provoking pieces from Nieman Foundation. The basic moment for the effective beginning of the tropicalista movement, was in 1967, III the festival of Brazilian popular music, where Caetano Veloso presented, to the side of the Beat Boys, music ' ' Joy, Alegria' ' , and Gilbert Gil, folloied of ' ' The Mutantes' ' , it presented, ' ' Sunday in parque' '. Musics, queganharam the room prize and according to place, respectively, they had shaken opblico, and they had displayed what it would come to be the Tropicalismo. It appears then the idea to degravar an album in set, where all the tropicalistas musicians participated.

It appears then, in 1968, the record baptized of ' ' Tropiclia or Panis Et Circense' '. The record, that receives the term from manifesto of the tropicalismo, synthecized aidia that they came working until then. One mixture of elements, contributions of different styles and a mixture of aspects gifts Brazilian nacultura. Valley to remember that in 1968, year of the launching of the discomanifesto, was the period height of the cultivation, which the movement tropicalistarepresentava and that in Brazil, in this exactly year, was created the Act Institucionalnumero 5, (AI-5) that it represented the period hardest of the military regimen. .

Brazil Military

The opposite was given. The military had won the war of the weapons and had lost the war of the speech. As he affirms Jarbas Passarinho: ' ' The support of the press, we lose it when the censorship was imposed it and, over this, for censors unprepared, incapable to distinguish a notice from a message for the guerrilla. As the freedom is for the press the same that the oxygen for the life, the media did not delay to be against the government and to season, skillfully, land for the leaders of oposio' ' .6 The imposition to ' ' silncio' ' on the guerrilla, in the sample how much we must recoup the voice of the military, does not stop becoming it only regarding the subject, but yes to point it as enriquecedora contradiction with respect to the constitution of ampler history of the conflict. ' ' The destruction of the past? or better, of the social mechanisms that tie our personal experience with the one of the last generations? he is one of the dismal phenomena most characteristic and of the end of century XX. Almost all the young of today grow in a species of continuous gift, without any organic relation with the public past of the time where they live.

Therefore historians, whose craft is to remember what others forget, never becomes more important that ' ' (HOBSBAWM: 1995:13) our objective is to extend the quarrel on the directions of the guerrilla. It must, therefore, to effect the exploration of the divergences. The military are the only ones that they have information that they are useful to the clarification of the episode, as tells to the reporter Jose Mitchell in news article in the Periodical of Brazil: ' ' Private documents of the Army, disclosed have two months for the Periodical of Brazil, had shown that more than 60 guerrillas of the PC of the B had been died and are buried in places of difficult access and that 16 6 military Jarbas Passarinho are colonel of the reserve.

Brazilian Imaginary

This battle around the symbols disclosed an important content that can to supply excellent elements that dimensionam the vision of the republic and its divergent points of the diverse groups that were part of this historical movement. In this direction, the author points that the quarrel of these same symbols can disclose the vision that the regimen intends to fix in imaginary the popular one, beyond demonstrating the capacity to manipulate it, remaking it in accordance with its values and interests. We can understand that the battle around the vision of Republic that if it searched to implement in Brazil, is inside of a context that discloses that any regimen politician has the purpose to create a civic panteo and to point out figures that can serve of image and models for the society. The use of hymns and flags if became symbols with meanings ' ' universais' '. We cannot currently imagine a City, State or Country that do not have a symbol that it can identify it as an institution.

Associations of friends, educational institutions and others need to create its symbols as an image that if materializes in interior of the society. The Brazilian republican regimen used of all these apparatuses to affirm itself. The battles ideological politics and that if had effected before the implementation of the regimen well, when already it presented this character of manipulation of symbologies from the idea of federacy in counterpoint to the centralism of the imperial government, Abolition in detriment the Slavery as institution that determined ' ' atraso' ' social moral and of the nation. We can also identify an intense battle that it searched to define the image of the new regimen that perpassava, consequently, in reaching imaginary the popular one and recriar them around republican values. In this direction, Jose Murilo de Carvalho observes: ' ' The elaboration of an imaginary one is integrant part of legitimation of any regimen politician.

Adam Schaff Historical

(Adam Schaff) Dhiogo Jose Caetano Graduating of the UEG – State University of Gois Word-Key: Rebellion, Totality, History, Positivismos, Human being, Croce, Science, Contempornea and Espiritualidade. We can perceive from the analysis of the text Adam Schaff that occurs a process of reformularization of the basic principles of the traditional school; which opposes the previous teses. The divergences appear between the historians at the moment that they pass to interpret the facts being clearly that the study of the facts historical human being goes beyond the limits of the understanding; formulating the contrapositions, affirming that in the historical knowledge, the citizen and the object they constitute a organic totality, acting one on the other; it fits to the historian, the function to interpret the historical events, observing that in history it does not exist laws and rules. The antipositivistas disclose to the distinction between events and the historical facts, affirming that the historian has the paper to work and to understand, therefore cognitiva relation never is passive contemplativa, but active because of the citizen that knows; detaching always the historical reality with total history, working not only the conditional social part for the process of formation of a organic and vice totality and it turns. Schaff considers Hegel a precursor of the presentismo, why exactly its considered ideas being opposing, backwards workmanships that they deserve to be detached, as for example, in the form where the historians, present the ideas on the historical knowledge. Such idea conditions in them to understand ' ' fielmente' ' history but, in a direction of ambiguity leaving of to be passive while thought, trying always to observe the diversity of the reflection of the facts historical, not only having the paper to rewrite such occurrences, submitting themselves it a thought that observes, space between lineses the deformities and the consequences of a purely receptive particularitity.

The Army

Christians and Jews sought as to increase their influence and control the economy in the country. This affected the sharp class confrontation between the Christian-Jewish aristocracy, and the Muslim masses. The split in the army became a part of domestic conflict, which has acquired the class, ethnic and religious character. Al-Hakim, get real control of the country after the removal of Bardzhavana (in 1000 suspected al-Hakim, the regent of the organization coup Bardzhavan was arrested and executed) was to look for the forms and methods of overcoming the crisis. The main threat to the economy of al-Hakim, seen in the power of Christian-Jewish oligarchy. This prompted him to establish a state control over the economy of the country.

He introduced fixed prices for many commodities, particularly meat and bread, abolished taxes on some commodities (particularly on silk and soap). Al-Hakim has tightened state control over production and distribution of wine and beer, and subsequently imposed a total ban on them. This ban was due not so much from religious motives, as with the political: wine making and selling alcohol involved Christian-Jewish to know. Alcohol prohibition to undermine this type of income. The ban applies to and including the use of wine in the rites of Christian and Jewish festivals. Were also prohibited public and Jewish hristianskietseremonii were put decals for these populations, which they wore on their clothing. In 1008 the Caliph has balanced the rights of Sunnis and Shiites, has created a device to ensure safety. The streets began to be the fight against hooliganism, theft and crime.