What is the cylinder-piston group (CPG) 4-stroke internal combustion engine (ICE)? This is the most intense pair of friction. A ring (ring), perhaps the most important element influencing the performance of all engine. On the mobility and surface rings depend all the performance indicators of ice. But there is another side of the same efficient engine operation. Hardly anyone seriously thought that is why when used in as additives in fuel, or as sometimes written component of additives in the fuel, changes in fuel consumption. Almost all of the results of measurements of fuel consumption steadily confirm a decline of 10% or higher. Serious explanation this process in the published results is given.
We consider this issue carefully. With increasing path in the cpg motor increases the degree of wear. Accordingly, compression and falls in proportion to increases in fuel consumption. That's proportionately. This fact is undisputed.
And no one disputed. That's more confusion. Reason for the decline is attributable to all, not that that's really going on. Better fuel combustion is important. Indeed significantly increased throttle response. Nevertheless, the reasons for reducing consumption is not clear. And objectively studied. The reason is obvious in a few superficial analysis of the processes occurring in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines. Certainly an analysis of all the phenomena described are strictly different thermodynamic relations that characterize the movement of the flame front, the velocity of the flame front and indicators more complete combustion fuel. The content of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (CH), nitrogen oxides (NOx) is equally important.
Out in reverse also is complicated and unpredictable – in short, you've arrived! We have a familiar, stubborn and foolhardy to attempt ditch jump. If you're at it go, then at least do not forget to buckle your safety belt and landed all, including animals, out of the car – perhaps the passengers! We advise you to go to other, more competent, proven professionals through. Arriving to the den, look on the bottom. If it is not quite solid, the wheels for better traction to reduce pressure in the tires up to 1.0 kgf/cm2. Then turn wheel drive, downshift, lock the central differential and rear axle differential, if any.
Driving a car, it should be forwarded to the obstacle at an angle of 45 degrees to line the edge of the moat. And remember, a feature of governance in overcoming the ditches and drains is the need to maintain a constant speed and smooth movement from beginning to end obstruction. In this case, the vehicle with you, nothing should happen. But even small changes speed, even briefly, can lead to blow the wheels on the wall of the ditch, so that gazovat or inhibit prohibited. We suggest that boldly go into an obstacle at a speed of 2-3 km / h, while maintaining constant speed engine crankshaft. Once the front axle wheels come into contact with the opposite wall of the ditch, do not even think it's over. Make an effort and do not increase speed until, until ensure contact with the ground all four wheels of your formidable off-roader. Otherwise the increase in speed will lead to the failure of the rear axle in a ditch, and thus the front axle to rise above the ground – the car will lose contact with the coating and become unmanageable.
Therefore, the continuity and smoothness of movement are necessary conditions for overcoming the ditches and trenches. If the car stopped due to the mutual slip bridges, hand over back. Begin motion again on a different trajectory. And remember, when choosing a place to travel across the ditch should be chosen larger areas with lower height of benches.
That was when Rudolf Diesel hit on the idea of establishing an effective engine efficiency which could exceed 10-12%, then is an indicator of steam engines. With the construction and working principle of the future diesel engine are relatively fast: it is an internal combustion engine with the ignition of fuel from the heat of compressed gas. However, in the process of creating a working copy of difficulty: high pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber drive motor to get burned pistons, engine parts breakdowns, and sometimes even an explosion. In the end, to refine and giving aggregate sufficient reliability took a few years. But the 1897 goal was finally reached: the enormous five-ton engine, developed by 20ls 173ob/min and had a 26% efficiency.
Even promising Otto engine with forced ignition from only 20%! Why do diesel engines have turned out so economical? It has two fundamental reasons. The first is a high-compression diesel engines: 13 to 25 to 12 in the best representatives of the gasoline. These figures should not be underestimated, because on them depends the efficiency of motor: higher than they are, the more extended hot exhaust gases, and, accordingly, the more their thermal energy is converted into mechanical energy. Therefore, if we compare the modern diesel and gasoline engines, the first able to absorb 38-50% of heat released during combustion of fuel, and the second – only 25-38%. A reasonable question: what prevents raise the compression ratio of gasoline engines? Prevents detonation, ie, spontaneous ignition of the fuel-air mixture from the intense heat at too high compression.